The multiculturalism of lebanon

Walid Phares In fact, multiculturalism as applied to the human community that forms the Lebanese citizenship is simultaneously simple and complex. The factual multiplicity is complex because its composing elements are numerous and diverse.

The multiculturalism of lebanon

Lebanon as a Case Study Prepared By: Retired General Nizar abdel-kader Researcher Many Countries industrialized and developing, some before and many after the turn of the century, have experienced strains and instability caused by the competing demands of communal groups.

Attachments The multiculturalism of lebanon parochial communities within the state reflecting religious, ethnic, linguistic, regional, and racial differences have become more salient The multiculturalism of lebanon points in the political process. As Nathan Glazier and Daniel Monahan have written: However, states widely considered to have passed the threshold of national integration, like Britain, Belgium, Canada, and others, suddenly again confront basic issues relating to the fundamental rules and processes of the state.

In true platonic fashion, multiculturalism may reflect at the social level the psychological changes within individual members of a democratic society that happens to embrace many cultures. Beginning with their families, individuals later identify with their specific ethnic or racial group and only later widen their circle of understanding to encompass all others in the society, including those who may be very different in physical appearance or in some of their cultural beliefs.

In some countries, like the United States, multiculturalism gains particular significance.

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This legal protection gives such groups the opportunity and the right to coexist even if a real or hypothetical majority were to prefer that they do not. After almost two hundred years of struggle by the Civil Rights movement, multiculturalism gained its long awaited social recognition and became the rightful heir to constitutional ideals that have legally become a part of the US democracy.

It may be argued that knowledge of other cultures does not guarantee that one will end up appreciating, as opposed to hating, them. To some other theorists, multiculturalism could promote segregation, stifle free speech, and even threaten liberal democracy.

The multiculturalism of lebanon

The politics of freedom risk descending into the politics of fear. Moreover, Islamic fundamentalism with its exclusions, excessive, self-elevations, and its criticism of human rights damage multicultural civil society just as do the Western concepts of superiority and xenophobia.


Nonetheless, it would be wrong to talk of the failure of multicultural movement in the face of the current conflicts and turmoil created by the fundamentalists and Islamists as well as to demand an end to peaceful coexistence between the Islamist majority and other minorities.

Democracy and multicultural society are both dependent on a supporting political culture of tolerance for their existence. In the Islamic societies, new support should be found through the efforts of political education. Lebanon as a Case Study Historical Background Lebanon, which I use as a case study, has experienced the consequences of repeated struggles between its constituent components.

Religious groups in Lebanon constitute the major political forces of the political system. From a historical perspective, to assess the potential viability of the newly created state of Greater Lebanon inone must study the relations between the various religious groups which constitute the confessional communities.

In speaking of these confessional communities inPierre Rondot stated: The significance of such a confessional identification was by no means unique to Lebanon, but characterized nearly the whole of the Near East.

Differentiation within the Christian community, primarily among Greek Orthodox, Maronite, Greek Catholic, and Roman Catholic; and within the Muslim community, primarily between Sunnis, Shiites, and Druze, became almost as great as that between the larger Christian-Muslim groupings.

Such strong identification was the direct cause behind the confessional conflict in Lebanon that took place in and Mount Lebanon had a fairly complex confessional configuration: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic groups were also of significant size.

The Shiites lost their land in Mount Lebanon to the steadily Maronite migration from the north toward central Lebanon. Orthodox pockets were also scattered in Mount Lebanon. The division of Mount Lebanon in into two districts kaymmakamates was an attempt to divide Mount Lebanon into two confessionally homogenous provinces, but the actual composition of the population in the two provinces reveals the extent of the geographical mixing of confessional groups.

The coastal cities of Tripoli, Beirut and Sidon contained large numbers of Sunnis, as did the areas north of Tripoli, while the areas south of Sidon tended to be predominantly Shiite with a few pockets of Christians.

The multiculturalism of lebanon

Given the importance of the relations among the various religious communities in determining the viability and the destiny of the new state of Lebanon, it is necessary to examine the character of these relations prior to The focus of our examination will be on those relations during the eighteenth century starting with the Chehab dynasty in and the nineteenth century.

The purpose of such an examination will focus on assessing the relationships among the various religious groups in Mount Lebanon with special attention to examples of intergroup conflict.

During the Chehab dynasty, suspicion on the part of the Druze that one or another of the Chehab emirs favored the Maronites to the detriment of the Druze frequently provoked intergroup hostility and conflict. To the Druze this provided clear evidence of confessional favoritism and could be explained by the fact that Emir Bashir II was himself a Maronite.

One of the clear-cut examples of such discrimination against Druze came in when Bashir II destroyed the province of the principal Druze chieftain, Bashir Jumblat, and later had him killed. The Druze interpretations of these events were as being anti-Druze.

The perceived intention of the emir was given greater historical significance than the actual motive. A closely related, but logically distinct motive of intergroup hostility had its origins in the suspicion by a confessional community that a foreign ruling power discriminated against them to the advantage of other communities.

For one reason or another, his policies were in favor of the Maronites to the detriment of the Druze. For instance, in Britain attempted to encourage Druze antagonism against the Maronites.To be able to understand the multiculturalism of the individual carrying the Lebanese nationality, it is primordial to understand major highlights of this country’s history.

Corm ( 6) highlights the impact several historical moments had on Lebanon and the development of its culture. m. reinkowski: ottoman multiculturalism? in the Mountain. 31 The suppressing of the Ottoman past in the Lebanese public might be in this sense another con8ociationalist.

Lebanon is the smallest country in which the blood of all Lebanese was mixed up, but Lebanon is bigger than the biggest country measured by the strength of these sons and daughters, she added. Lebanon is a country of peace and love to all his children.

Multicultural Psychiatrists If you're looking for Multicultural Therapy in Lebanon or for a Lebanon Multicultural Therapist, these professionals provide multicultural counseling, and have a.

10 Multiculturalism was experimented in Lebanon and failed This is probably the best video you can see on the effects of multiculturalism (applied to the Islamic culture). It is a Brigite Gabriel's testimony describing the experience of Libano an oasis in the Middle East so Christian and generous decided to open the door indiscriminately to Muslims and become the example of the multicultural society of the .

Arabic is the official language of Lebanon, but there is also a large French-speaking population due to Lebanon’s history with France. English is also frequently spoken by the younger popular especially.

Multiculturalism Identity