Though offered a scholarship to Princeton, Nader's father forced him to decline the offer on the grounds that the family was able to pay Nader's tuition and the funds should go to a student who could not afford it.
Justice is served, but more so after lunch: This school of thought holds that the law, being a human concoction, is subject to the same foibles, biases and imperfections that affect everything humans do. In reality, they can be influenced by irrelevant things like their moods and, as Frank suggested, their breakfasts.
The vertical axis is the proportion of cases where the judges granted parole. The horizontal axis shows the order in which the cases were heard during the day.
And the dotted lines, they represent the points where the judges went away for a morning snack and their lunch break. The graph is dramatic. These rulings were made by eight Jewish-Israeli judges, with an average of 22 years of judging behind them.
Every day, each judge considers between 14 and 35 cases, spending around 6 minutes on each decision. They take two food breaks that divide their day into three sessions.
All of these details, from the decision to the times of the breaks, are duly recorded. Needless to say, I would expect there to be something put into place after this.
All repetitive decision-making tasks drain our mental resources. The more decisions a judge has made, the more drained they are, and the more likely they are to make the default choice.
Taking a break replenishes them. There are several other ways of explaining this striking pattern but Danziger ruled all of them out. They also have control over when they set their breaks, so prison staff cannot predictably schedule the hearings in order of ease.
The only remaining explanation is one that legal realists have been pushing for years — that judges, even experienced ones, are vulnerable to the same psychological biases as everyone else.
They can deliver different rulings in similar cases, under the influence of something as trivial as a food break. Indeed, Danziger thinks that the same probably applies outside the legal setting, to financial decisions, interviews, university admission decisions, medical decisions and more.
Improvements in medicine, military combat, and other critical decision-making contexts have required that attention be paid to the effects of exhaustion.
Likewise, improvements in the justice system may likewise require that society acknowledge the effects of biological contributions to legal decision-making. Danziger, Leva and Avnaim-Pesso.
Extraneous factors in judicial decisions. This means that the data points at the start of each session are based on a large number of cases, but those at the end are based on fewer cases.AN IMPORTANT NOTE: This page is not in any way offered as prescription, diagnosis nor treatment for any disease, illness, infirmity or physical condition.
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