Piaget and Vygotsky Why is it that a four year old thinks there is more of water in a tall narrow glass than there is in a short broader glass, when both glasses contain the same amount of water? In exploring the concept of cognitive development, two names are sure to come up, Piaget and Vygotsky. Cognitive development theory was first coined by Jean Piaget as a biological approach to child learning. The nature of these changes and how these changes proceed is a topic of much debate throughout the years.
Over the first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions. For example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping. Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioningcan begin.
Three new abilities occur at this stage: At this stage, infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of a desired object, often to the amusement of friends and family.
Secondary circular reactions, or the repetition of an action involving an external object begin; for example, moving a switch to turn on a light repeatedly. The differentiation between means and ends also occurs.
This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence ". Also, this stage marks the beginning of goal orientationthe deliberate planning of steps to meet an objective.
Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist," conducting pseudo-experiments to discover new methods of meeting challenges.
This marks the passage into the preoperational stage. During the pre-operational stage of cognitive development, Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic and cannot mentally manipulate information. However, the child still has trouble seeing things from different points of view.
Such play is demonstrated by the idea of checkers being snacks, pieces of paper being plates, and a box being a table. Their observations of symbols exemplifies the idea of play with the absence of the actual objects involved.
The pre-operational stage is sparse and logically inadequate in regard to mental operations. The child is able to form stable concepts as well as magical beliefs. The child, however, is still not able to perform operations, which are tasks that the child can do mentally, rather than physically.
Thinking in this stage is still egocentricmeaning the child has difficulty seeing the viewpoint of others. The Pre-operational Stage is split into two substages: The symbolic function substage is when children are able to understand, represent, remember, and picture objects in their mind without having the object in front of them.
The intuitive thought substage is when children tend to propose the questions of "why? However, they now can think in images and symbols. Other examples of mental abilities are language and pretend play. Symbolic play is when children develop imaginary friends or role-play with friends.
Some examples of symbolic play include playing house, or having a tea party. The type of symbolic play in which children engage is connected with their level of creativity and ability to connect with others.
For example, young children whose symbolic play is of a violent nature tend to exhibit less prosocial behavior and are more likely to display antisocial tendencies in later years.
Egocentrism Egocentrism occurs when a child is unable to distinguish between their own perspective and that of another person. Children tend to stick to their own viewpoint, rather than consider the view of others.
Indeed, they are not even aware that such a concept as "different viewpoints" exists. In this experiment, three views of a mountain are shown to the child, who is asked what a traveling doll would see at the various angles. Piaget coined the term "precausal thinking" to describe the way in which preoperational children use their own existing ideas or views, like in egocentrism, to explain cause-and-effect relationships.
Three main concepts of causality as displayed by children in the preoperational stage include: An example could be a child believing that the sidewalk was mad and made them fall down, or that the stars twinkle in the sky because they are happy.
Artificialism refers to the belief that environmental characteristics can be attributed to human actions or interventions.
For example, a child might say that it is windy outside because someone is blowing very hard, or the clouds are white because someone painted them that color. Finally, precausal thinking is categorized by transductive reasoning. Transductive reasoning is when a child fails to understand the true relationships between cause and effect.
For example, if a child hears the dog bark and then a balloon popped, the child would conclude that because the dog barked, the balloon popped. Intuitive thought substage[ edit ] At between about the ages of 4 and 7, children tend to become very curious and ask many questions, beginning the use of primitive reasoning.Piaget () was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development.
His contributions include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Thesis Statement: Jean Piaget is one of the most important theorists in all psychology who forged one of the most comprehensive and compelling theories of intellectual development.
PIAGET"S BACKGROUND. Jean Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland /5(16). Piaget’s theory, which is the children cognitive development, is through four single stages for testing all children commonly.
This is used to recognize the ways of development factors that affect children’s grief. Cognitive development is much more than addition of new facts and ideas to an existing store of information - Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay introduction.
According to Piaget, our thinking processes change radically, though slowly, from birth to maturity because we constantly strive to make sense of our world. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory The Cognitive Development Theory was first identified by Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was born on August 9, in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Piaget became well known by the many papers he published throughout his late teen years. - Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Introduction Jean Piaget is the founder of Cognitive development.
He is Swiss and although he had no background in psychology, he made a tremendous impact on the field, particularly in the area of cognitive, developmental and educational psychology.