History[ edit ] From the outset, the Meteor programme has been the main catalyst for the consolidation of the European complex weapons industry. The selection of Meteor ended a long-running and hard-fought competition between Europe and the United States US and gained Europe a significant foothold in a market sector hitherto dominated by the U.
It was effective at visual to beyond visual range. Marine Corpsand early U. The F-4 carried up to four AIM-7s in built-in recesses under its belly. Although designed for use against non-maneuvering targets such as bombers, because of poor performance against fighters over North Vietnam, these missiles were progressively improved until they proved highly effective in dogfights.
A disadvantage to semi-active homing was that only one target could be illuminated by the launching fighter plane at a time. Also, the launching aircraft had to remain pointed in the direction of the target within the azimuth and elevation of its own radar set which could be difficult or dangerous in air-to-air combat.
An active-radar variant called the Sparrow II was developed to address these drawbacks, but the U. Navy pulled out of the project in The Royal Canadian Air Forcewhich took over development in the hopes of using the missile to arm their prospective CF Arrow interceptor, soon followed in It would take decades, and a new generation of digital electronics, to produce an effective active-radar air-to-air missile as compact as the Sparrow.
Originally intended for the straight-wing Douglas F6D Missileer and then the navalized version of the FBit finally Meteor missile service Meteor missile the Grumman F Tomcatthe only fighter capable of carrying such a heavy missile.
Phoenix was the first US fire-and-forgetmultiple-launch, radar-guided missile: Its service in the US Navy was primarily as a deterrent, as its use was hampered by restrictive rules of engagement in conflicts such as Operations Desert StormSouthern Watchand Iraqi Freedom.
What was needed was Phoenix-type multiple-launch and terminal active capability in a Sparrow-size airframe. Requirements[ edit ] Surface-to-air mounting shown: CATMC captive training variant By the s, the reliability of the Sparrow had improved so much from the dismal days of Vietnam that it accounted for the largest number of aerial targets destroyed in Desert Storm.
The AMRAAM became one of the primary air-to-air weapons of the new F Raptor fighter, which needed to place all of its weapons into internal weapons bays in order to help achieve an extremely low radar cross-section.
Under this agreement the U. It improves the aerial combat capabilities of US and allied aircraft to meet the threat of enemy air-to-air weapons as they existed in The new missile is faster, smaller, and lighter, and has improved capabilities against low-altitude targets.
It also incorporates a datalink to guide the missile to a point where its active radar turns on and makes terminal intercept of the target. An inertial reference unit and micro-computer system makes the missile less dependent upon the fire-control system of the aircraft.
Once the missile closes in on the target, its active radar guides it to intercept. This feature, known as "fire-and-forget", frees the aircrew from the need to further provide guidance, enabling the aircrew to aim and fire several missiles simultaneously at multiple targets and perform evasive maneuvers while the missiles guide themselves to the targets.
The missile also features the ability to "Home on Jamming,"  giving it the ability to switch over from active radar homing to passive homing — homing on jamming signals from the target aircraft.
Software on board the missile allows it to detect if it is being jammed, and guide on its target using the proper guidance system.
The aircraft passes data to the missile just before launch, giving it information about the location of the target aircraft from the launch point and its direction and speed. The missile uses this information to fly on an interception course to the target using its built-in inertial navigation system INS.
Terminal stage and impact[ edit ] Once the missile closes to self-homing distance, it turns on its active radar seeker and searches for the target aircraft.
If the target is in or near the expected location, the missile will find it and guide itself to the target from this point.
If the missile is fired at short range, within visual range WVR or the near BVR, it can use its active seeker just after launch, making the missile truly "fire and forget".
This mode is radar guidance-free, the missile just fires and locks onto the first thing it sees. This mode can be used for defensive shot, i. Kill probability and tactics[ edit ] This article needs additional citations for verification.Meteor is an active radar guided beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) being developed by MBDA.
Meteor will offer a multi-shot capability against long range manoeuvring targets in a heavy electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment with range in excess of km. Meteor’s stunning performance is achieved through its unique ramjet propulsion system – solid fuel, variable flow, ducted rocket.
This ‘ramjet’ motor provides the missile with thrust all the way to target intercept, providing the largest . The Meteor is an active radar guided beyond visual range (BVR) air to air missile produced by MBDA.
It has entered service with the Swedish Air Force as of April on the JAS 39 Gripen. Meteor is the next generation of Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system designed to revolutionise air-to-air combat in the 21st Century.
The weapon brings together six nations with a common need to defeat the threats of today as well as the future emerging ones. Apr 21, · To get the missile inside the weapon bay MBDA plans to equip the Meteor missiles destined for the F with clipped tail fins that will be clipped in height and lengthened, to retain the wing area and thus maintain the weapon’s kinematic performance.
The missile’s ramjet propulsion system gives Meteor its high-speed performance and the energy to defeat fast, moving targets at very long range. Gripen C/D with the Swedish Air Force in was the world’s first fighter aircraft to be operational with the Meteor missile.