Schizophrenia[ edit ] A systematic review of art therapy as an add on treatment for schizophrenia found unclear effects. Through art therapy, children may be able to make more sense of their traumatic experiences and form accurate trauma narratives. Gradual exposure to these narratives may reduce trauma-induced symptoms, such as flashbacks and nightmares.
Emoji, Emoji, What for Art Thou? Lisa Lebduska By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy.
The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation.
So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words.
Ina group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to "trade quips" about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously Garber.
They developed the iconic: And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn?
Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the "erasure of language" MacDonald what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as "the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence" qtd.
While emoticons and emoji, their "more elaborate cousins" Worthammight be evidence of an "apparent [generational] decline" in young people's vocabulary Wilson and GoveI'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness.
Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacyby reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world.
The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself.
Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production Trimburas well as an assertion of Western superiority Miller and Lupton. In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form.
In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day.
Emoji origins in teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters.
But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for the characters to display properly Marsden. Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan.
In the mid's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium Hitchhikers Guide fans! This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the "roman du roi" typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut.
Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt "to embody the authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power" Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template.
Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send.Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Expressive essays An expressive essay is one of the most common types of essays assigned to college and university students. This type of essay represents a gist of a student’s personal experience on a certain topic, therefore, it requires thorough preliminary research and analysis.
Our essay topics have been closely modeled on those in the SAT.
You can also do the essays given in the first section of each of the tests in the Official Study Guide.. Each of the topics consists of a prompt and an assignment.
Paul Ricoeur (—) Paul Ricoeur was among the most impressive philosophers of the 20th century continental philosophers, both in the unusual breadth and depth of his philosophical scholarship and in the innovative nature of his thought. Fashion and Identity essay. Table of contents: 1.
Introduction. 2. Fashion and identity. 1. Communication through fashion. 2. Impact on outer perception. Expressive essay on object or image that one can inspect in person.
This object (a dog) should invoke some sort of emotional response. The object might have sentimental value.