Ancient Philippine scripts and Baybayin During the pre-colonial period, most children were provided with solely vocational training, which was supervised by parents, tribal tutors or those assigned for specific, specialized roles within their communities for example, the baybayin. Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule Formal education was brought to the Philippines by the Spaniards, which was conducted mostly by religious orders. Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands.
There has been generally a growing awareness of the necessity to change and improve the preparation of students for productive functioning in the continually changing and highly demanding environment. In confronting this challenge it is necessary to consider the complexity of the education system itself and the multitude of problems that must be addressed.
Clearly, no simple, single uniform approach can be applied with the expectation that significant improvements of the system will occur. Indeed, any strategy for change must contend with the diverse factors affecting the education system, the interactions of its parts, and the intricate interdependencies within it and with its environment.
As we consider these problems, we become increasingly cognizant of the various possibilities of using concepts and methods of the study of complex systems for providing direction and strategies to facilitate the introduction of viable and successful changes.
A key insight from complex systems is that simple solutions are not likely to be effective in cases such as the education system, and that providing a balance or coexistence of what seem to be opposites may provide the greatest opportunities for successful courses of action. In the following we consider Integrating the commonly polarized goals of education; i.
Adapting teaching to different student characteristics by using diverse methods of teaching. Adaptation to the ability levels, patterns of different abilities, learning styles, personality characteristics, and cultural backgrounds. Integrating the curriculum by developing inter-disciplinary curriculum units that enable students to acquire knowledge from different disciplines through a unifying theme while having the opportunity to contribute in different and special ways to the objectives of the integrated units.
Educational Goals The approaches to teaching can be categorized according to major educational goals that affect teaching strategies. On one hand the goal of education is viewed as the transmission of knowledge by the teachers to the students. The convergent approach is highly structured and teacher-centered; the students are passive recipients of knowledge transmitted to them and learning achievements are measured by standardized tests.
The divergent approach is flexible, student-centered, where the students are active participants in the learning process and learning achievements are assessed by a variety of evaluation tools such as self-evaluation in parallel to teacher evaluation; documentation portfolios; and special projects see also Niche Selection link to be added soon.
Still, the tendency in the education system of today is toward the convergent approach. In fact, among the current suggestions for implementing educational reforms to deal with the considerable problems of the education system, there has been a strong emphasis on setting convergent goals, an aspect of which is the use of across-the-board standardized testing.
Testing has been commonly viewed as a prudent way to determine the success or failure of the teaching and learning process. There has been a relatively limited use of other means of evaluation which are more complicated and more demanding in terms of application and interpretation.
Educators who stress the importance of the acquisition of specific knowledge as a useful way to prepare the students for productive future functioning, must come to realize that even for the purpose of this goal alone, a divergent approach is needed today.
On the other hand, those who emphasize the importance of autonomous growth and creative self-expression, must realize that the students need academic skills such as reading, writing, calculating, etc. Since the creative process involves new ways of using existing knowledge, it is important to provide opportunities for students to acquire such knowledge which can be acquired by convergent teaching.
Hence, convergent and divergent teaching strategies are both needed and the challenging question is how to find the balance between them within the complexity of the process of teaching and learning.
It is likely that the two approaches may increasingly become not mutually exclusive but interrelated and interdependent. An important development is the growing awareness that academic achievement could improve by adapting teaching to students individual differences. In general, adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching tends to be limited.
The students are all expected to strive toward one goal of learning specified required knowledge; some may attain it and others may fall by the wayside or be given some remediation with limited results. Nevertheless, there are various possibilities of effective adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching.
Even when all the students are taught the same material, teachers can use different methods, different techniques or different media, to cater to individual differences in abilities and personality characteristics. As the students experience success and consequently a sense of competence, their motivation is enhanced to pursue further learning.
Such an approach has a better potential for success than the common reality of students with learning difficulties, who often struggle through remediation with a sense of inadequacy and discouraging experiences of failure.
Adaptation to individual differences under divergent teaching may be expected to be productive because of its emphasis on student autonomous, active, self-reliant learning. Yet, there are students who may not function well under divergent conditions because of their strong need for guidance, direction, and structure.
Divergent teaching can cater to such needs by individual guidance, along with ongoing assessment and subsequent modifications. Teaching Strategies and Students Characteristics Among the most difficult problems faced by the education system are those associated with teaching effectiveness.
The current preparation of teachers for specific age levels, specific subject matter, specific academic skills, etc.
There is a strong need to train teachers to adapt instruction to the diverse student abilities, learning styles, personality traits and needs by using more differentiated teaching strategies See also Complexity in the Classroom link to be added soon.
In addition to the preparation of teachers to more differentiated teaching, there could be more divergent use of teaching resources.A final seminar was held in the Philippines from 25 August to l September Organized jointly be IIEP, DSE, and the International Development Research Centre in Canada and hosted by the SEAMEO INNOTECH Center in Participation for educational change: a synthesis of experience.
Current Issues in Education (CIE) is an open access, peer-reviewed academic education journal produced by doctoral students at Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College of Arizona State University. The journal publishes articles on a broad range of education topics that are timely and have relevance in the field of education both nationally and internationally.
Current trends in education and international student mobility in the Philippines, with an overview of the education system, institutions, and qualifications. social science, Philippine history and culture, physical education and arts.
One notable and important change, however, is that minority The Philippine “Educational Service. Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational caninariojana.comg for public education comes from the national government..
At the basic education level, the Department of Education (DepEd) sets overall educational standards and mandates standardized tests for the . This case study of school leaders in the Southern Philippines explored principal perspectives on local dynamics that facilitate and impede meaningful educational change.
The research indicated that change is a complicated proposition in the region. Research Complex, España, Manila Philippines (). Electronic mail may be sent to ustcerd @caninariojana.com The Dynamics of Educational Reforms in the Philippine Basic and Higher Education Sectors Allan B.
de Guzman University of Santo Tomas of .