History[ edit ] — David Cook era[ edit ] Blockbuster's early beginnings can be traced back to another company, Cook Data Services, that was founded by David Cook in When Video Works would not allow him to decorate the interior of his store with a blue-and-yellow design, he departed the franchise and opened the first Blockbuster Video in Huizenga and Melk utilized techniques from their waste business and Ray Kroc 's model of expansion to rapidly expand Blockbuster, and soon they were opening a new store every 24 hours.
However, both the Energia and Buran programs were cancelled in However, several factors make such comparisons more complex than first appears: Commonly referenced thrust numbers are a specification, not an actual measurement. Individual stages and engines may fall short or exceed the specification, sometimes significantly.
The higher thrust was achieved via a redesign of the injector orifices and a slightly higher propellant mass flow rate. There is no way to directly measure thrust of a rocket in flight; Rather, a mathematical calculation is made from combustion chamber pressure, turbopump speed, calculated propellant density and flow rate, nozzle design, and atmospheric pressure.
Thrust varies greatly with external pressure and thus with altitude, even for a non-throttled engine. Thrust specifications are often given as vacuum thrust for upper stages or sea level thrust for lower stages or boosterssometimes without qualifying which one.
This can lead to incorrect comparisons.
Thrust specifications are often given as average thrust or peak thrust, sometimes without qualifying which one. Even for a non-throttled engine at a fixed altitude, thrust can often vary somewhat over the firing period due to several factors.
These include intentional or unintentional mixture ratio changes, slight propellant density changes over the firing period, and variations in turbopump, nozzle and injector performance over the firing period.
Without knowing the exact measurement technique and mathematical method used to determine thrust for each different rocket, comparisons are often inexact.
As the above shows, the specified thrust often differs significantly from actual flight thrust calculated from direct measurements.
The thrust stated in various references is often not adequately qualified as to vacuum vs sea level, or peak vs average thrust. Similarly, payload increases are often achieved in later missions independent of engine thrust. This is by weight reduction or trajectory reshaping.
The result is there is no single absolute figure for engine thrust, stage thrust or vehicle payload. There are specified values and actual flight values, and various ways of measuring and deriving those actual flight values. The first two stages were so large that the only way to transport them was by barge.
The third stage and Instrument Unit could be carried by the Aero Spacelines Pregnant Guppy and Super Guppybut could also have been carried by barge if warranted. On arrival at the Vertical Assembly Building, each stage was inspected in a horizontal position before being moved to a vertical position.
NASA also constructed large spool-shaped structures that could be used in place of stages if a particular stage was late. These spools had the same height and mass and contained the same electrical connections as the actual stages.
Built by the Marion Power Shovel company and later used for transporting the smaller and lighter Space Shuttlethe CT ran on four double-tracked treads, each with 57 'shoes'. This transporter was also required to keep the rocket level as it traveled the 3 miles 4.
The CT also carried the Mobile Service Structure MSSwhich allowed technicians access to the rocket until eight hours before launch, when it was moved to the "halfway" point on the Crawlerway the junction between the VAB and the two launch pads.
Lunar mission launch sequence[ edit ] Liftoff of Apollo 11the first mission to land humans on the Moon, July 16, Play media Apollo 11 launch pad filmed at fps. The Saturn V carried all Apollo lunar missions. Kennedy Space Center in Florida.Name ACC/ Date Professor June 3, Apollo Shoes Inc.
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